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404                                        PARGANA SA'DABA'D.
Strictly speaking, there is not in the whole of Sa'dabad a single town ;* for
even the capital is merely a largish village with a population of 3?295.   It was
founded by a character of considerable historical eminence, Vazir fck'dullah
KMn-~the minister of the Emperor Shtihjahan—who died in 1655, three years
before the accession of Aurangzeb.    For some time after the annexation of
1803, it continued to be recognized as the capital of a very extensive district,
which had the Jamuna as its western boundary and comprised the parganas
of Jalesar,  Mat, Noh-jhil, Maha-ban, Raya, Khandauli, Sikandra Rao and
Firozabad, in addition to the one named after itself.    This arninginent existed
till 1832, when the Mathura District was formed and absorbed the whole of the
Sa'dabad circle, with the exception of Sikandra Rao, which was attached to Aligarh,
and Firozab&d and Khandauli, which compensated Agra for the loss of Mathura.
If the size of the place had accorded in the least with its natural advantages,
ifc would have been impossible to find a more convenient and accessible local
centre ; as it stands on a small stream, called the Jharna, which facilitates both
drainage and irrigation, and it is also at the junction of four important high
roads.   Of these, one runs straight to MathurU, a distance of 24 miles ; another
to the Hallway Station at Manik-pur, which is nine miles off; while the remain-
ing two connect it with the towns of Agra and Aligarh,   The Tahsili, which
occupies the site of a Fort of the Gosain Himinat Bahadur's, is a small but
substantial building, with a deep fosse and pierced and battlemented walls.   As
H has the advantage of occupying an elevated position, and is supplied with a
good masonry well in the court-yard, it might in case of emergency be found
capable of standing a siege.   There is in the main street a largish temple with
an architectural facade ; but the most conspicuous building in the town is $
glittering white mosque, erected by the late Kunwar Irshad Ali Khan, near his
private residence*   There are two other small mosques ; one built, by Ahmad
Ali Khan, Tahsild4r3 the other ascribed to the Yazir, from whom the place
derives its name.    The zamindari estate was at one time divided between
BrahmanSj  Jats> and Grahlots,  of whom only the former now retain part
* As an illustration of the curious want of perspective, which characterizes all Dr. Hunter's
notices oi this district m hm Imperial Gazetteer, I observe that while he totally omits the
tOTrn^of Baladeva, Bm&ia and Naadganw, gives six lines to Gokul and barely half a page to
Brimim-baa, he devotes special paragraphs to two places in this Sa'dabid pargana, viz., BisaVar
and Kvnaodfl, which even in a book like the present devoted exclusively to one particular
district, lew find nothing to say about, except that Dr. Hnuterhaa mentioned them.   They
are not towns, nor erea villages, but simply wo groups of scattered and utterly inaignificant
agricultural hamlets, which for convenience of revenue parpoaea have been thrown together
ander 'Collective names